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Life in the Clouds

I’ve spent many years extolling the virtues of life on a cold brown dwarf moon.  Similar to the Galilean moons of Jupiter, a moon orbiting a sub-brown dwarf would be warmed internally by the tidal forces generated by its proximity to such a powerful gravitational force.  Additionally, the sub-brown dwarf itself might provide some local heating, or at least an abundance of charged-particle strewn local magnetic fields to energise the sub-stellar environment.  So, a habitable environment on a moon seems a likely scenario.  If a cold, dark sub-brown dwarf were to be found orbiting the Sun at a great distance, then it neatly provides the grounding for extraterrestrial life on our doorstep (1).

This seems to me to be the simplest scenario for life in a sub-brown dwarf system.  There are complexities – tidally-locked moons (2), lack of light, and so on.  But the basics are there.

lifeinclouds

Another exotic possibility is that the sub-brown dwarf itself might harbour life.  The complex cloud systems in these failed stars can contain layers which are at room temperature, and abundant in water and other chemical goodies which could form the building blocks of life.  A team of astronomers from Edinburgh University have been considering this very point, wondering whether very simple life might be able to get going in the clouds of a cold brown dwarf (3).  This life might arise in two ways – either somehow evolving from scratch in the cloud environment, or originally being seeded into it by an impacting asteroid or comet.  Either way, conditions for life might be good, except for the lack of a solid surface to dwell on:

Floating out by themselves in the Milky Way galaxy are perhaps a billion cold brown dwarfs, objects many times as massive as Jupiter but not big enough to ignite as a star. According to a new study, layers of their upper atmospheres sit at temperatures and pressures resembling those on Earth, and could host microbes that surf on thermal updrafts...Observations of cold brown dwarf atmospheres reveal most of the ingredients Earth life depends on: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, though perhaps not phosphorous. (4)

These ideas build upon work done by the late, great Carl Sagan (with his Cornell colleague E. E. Salpeter) on the potential for life in the clouds of the gas giant Jupiter, first considered back in the 1970s (5).  They envisioned giant ‘floaters’ filled with hydrogen bobbing through the Jovian atmosphere, tiny ‘sinkers’ and self-propelled ‘hunters’ which had evolved from the lazy floaters (6).  All very speculative, but presented in Dr Sagan’s inimitably compelling fashion.  Read More…

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Book Review: The Children of Roswell

I’m a big fan of these two authors.  Their no-nonsense approach to research is refreshing, and has undoubtedly been one of a number of factors which have placed the Roswell incident at the fore of UFO reality.  Carey and Schmitt have written several books about Roswell down the years, each essentially an update on their on-going research over a 25 year period.

This particular book begins with a wise and thought-provoking overview of why the stasis of non-disclosure persists, despite the well-documented evidence compelling the need for answers from government and the armed forces, which took firm control of this incredible event back in July 1947.  Given the probable nature of what actually crashed on the desert floor at that time, it’s hardly surprising that the event was buried beneath an Orwellian edifice for so many years, before witnesses finally felt safe enough to come forward… helped no doubt by safety in numbers, and a changing climate towards the rights of the individual before government power post post-war.

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